Ruling of Eid
Ibn Uthaymeen رحمه الله … There are three sayings on the Eid prayer, and the closest to which is correct is that it is obligatory [ لقاء الباب المفتوح (37) ]
Everyone even the women used to observe the ‘Eid prayer during the Prophet’s time and Umm ‘Atiyyah رضي الله عنها mentioned: “We used to be ordered to go out for the ‘Eid prayer such that the virgin would come out from her quarters and the menstruating women would come out as well and they would be behind the people and make takbeer with their takbeer.”
[Narrated by al-Bukhaaree, no. 971 -and this narration is his wording – and Muslim, no. 890]
Ibn Taymiyyah stated about the ‘Eid prayer in ‘Majmoo’ al-Fataawa’, vol.23, pg.161: “Indeed, it is one of the greatest signs of Islaam and the people gathering for it is greater than their gathering for Jumu’ah.”
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan:
The reason behind praying Eid outdoors is to show the strength of the Muslims and Islām.
(Al-Mulakhas al-Fiqhī, 1/211.)
Making ghusl and wearing your best clothes
It is narrated from Ibn ‘Umar as it was authentically narrated from Muhammad Ibn Ishaaq that he said: “I asked Naafi’: ‘How did Ibn ‘Umar pray the day of ‘Eid?’ He replied: ‘He used to observe the Fajr prayer with the Imaam, then he would return to his house and make ghusl like the ghusl required for ritual impurity. Then, he would wear his best clothes and use his best scents. Then, he would go out until he reached the ‘Eid area.’” [Narrated by al-Haarith Ibn Abi Usaamah as in ‘al-Mataalib al-‘Aaliyah’, no. 2753]
Imaam Maalik said in ‘al-Awsat’ of Ibn Mundhir, vol.4, pg.265: “I heard the People of Knowledge deem adorning oneself and wearing scents to be a recommended act for every ‘Eid.”
Before going out for Eid
Narrated Anas bin Malik,:
The Messenger of Allah ﷺ never proceeded (for the prayer) on the Day of ‘Eid-ul-Fitr unless he had eaten some dates. Anas also narrated: The Prophet used to eat odd number of dates.
(Sahih Bukharee – Volume 2, Book 15, Number 73)
It is reported on the authority of Al-Waki’ b. Al-Jarraah;
We went out one Eid with Sufyaan Al-Thawri and he said, “The first thing we will do on this day of ours is to lower our gaze.”
[Ibn Abi Al-Dunyaa, Kitaab Al-Wara’. Article 66]
Shaykh Ferkous :.. if the woman comes out, she should observe the rules of going out, i.e. she should neither make perfume nor beautify herself, and she is enjoined to veil herself wholly.
Walking to the Eid prayer grounds and making Takbeer
Imaam at-Tirmidhee mentioned in his ‘Sunan’, vol. 2, pg. 264: “The majority of the People of Knowledge deem the individual walking to the ‘Eid prayer to be a recommended act.”
Jaabir Ibn ‘Abdillah رضي الله عنه stated: “If it was the ‘Eid day, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم used to go (to the prayer) one way and return by another.” [Narrated by al-Bukhaaree, no. 986]
It has been authentically narrated from Ibn ‘Umar رضي الله عنه that he used to make takbeer when he left for the prayer area on the day of ‘Eid. [Narrated by al-Faryaabi, pg.39]
It is authentically reported from Ibn ‘Umar رضي الله عنه that he used to make the takbeer on the day of the ‘Eid until he arrived at the ‘Eid prayer area and would continue to make takbeer until the Imaam arrived.”[Narrated by al-Faryaabi, pgs. 46-48]
It has been authentically reported from Ibn ‘Umar that if he went for the ‘Eid al-Adhaa and ‘Eid al-Fitr, he would audibly pronounce the takbeer until he arrived at the prayer area and continued until the Imaam came.”[Narrated by ad-Daaraqutnee, vol.2, pg. 45 and similarly by al-Faryaabi, 43-53]
The Takbeer of Eid- Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen
Allaahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Laa Ilaha Illa-Allaah; Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, Wa Lillaahil-Hamd
Or he says:
الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر، لا إله إلا الله، الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر، ولله الحمد
Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, Laa Ilaha Illa-Allaah; Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, Wa Lillaahil-Hamd
Or that he says:
الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر، لا إله إلا الله، الله أكبر الله أكبر ولله الحمد
Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, Laa Ilaha Illaa-Allaah; Allaahu Akbar Allaahu Akbar, Wa Lillaahil-Hamd
….it is not legislated on the day of the ‘Eid while the Imaam is delivering the sermon. This is because the people are commanded to listen to the sermon.
As for congregational Takbeer in unison, this is not from the Sunnah. Rather, everyone is to make the Takbeer individually. With this Takbeer, it is legislated for the men to raise their voices with it. As for the women, they are not to raise their voices; neither in the house nor in the market places. The woman should not raise her voice with it; however, if she is within the house and it makes her more active to say it audibly, then there is no harm.
Translated by Raha ibn Donald Batts
Source: Silsilah Fataawaa Noor ‘Alaa Ad-Darb Tape No. 355
Raising hands during takbeer– It is authentically reported from Ibn Jurayj that he said: “I asked ‘Ataa, meaning Ibn Abi Rabbah the Taabi’ee: ‘The Imaam raises his hands every time he makes these extra takbeers in the ‘Eid al-Fitr prayer?’ He replied: ‘Yes and the people raise their hands as well.’” [Narrated by ‘Abdur Razzaaq, vol. 3, pg. 297]
Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr mentioned in ‘Fath al-Baaree’, vol. 2, pg. 446 and ‘The Section of Greetings’, 34-40: “And it has been narrated to us in ‘Muhaamiliyaat’ with a good chain of narration from Jubayr Ibn Nufayr that he said: ‘The Companions of the Prophet would say to one another: ‘May Allah accept from us and you’”Taqabbalallaahu min na wa minka” if they met on the day of the ‘Eid.’”
A forgotten Sunnah
“The Prophet ﷺ went out on the day of ‘Eid and prayed two rak’ahs, and he did not pray before or after them.” [Sunan an-Nasa’i, (No. 1587)]
The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم did not pray anything before the Eid prayer, and when he returned to his house he prayed two raka’at.[Narrated by Ibn Mājah and Ahmad]
Fasting is forbidden on the day of EID
An-Nawawī: There is a consensus (Ijmā’) amongst the scholars that it is forbidden to fast on the two days of ‘Eid (al-Fitr & al-Adhaa), no matter what the condition. Whether it be fasting for breaking an oath, or a voluntary fast, or fasting as part of expiation, or other than these reasons. [ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ )4/271 )]
Making Up The ‘Eid Prayer
Is it permissible for the one who misses the ‘Eid prayer to make it up? And if so how is it to be made up?
The Permanent Committee for Scientific Research and Fatwa of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia headed by Ibn Baaz as stated in ‘Al-Fataawa’, vol. 8, pg. 306-307, nos. 2328 and 4517:
“The individual who misses the ‘Eid prayer and wants to make it up, then it is recommended for him to do so and he is to pray it according to its normal manner without being followed by a khutbah and this is what was stated by Maalik, ash-Shaafi’ee, Ahmad, an-Nakha’ee and other scholars. The foundation for this is the statement of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم If you come to the prayer, then approach it with tranquility and composure. Whatever you have caught from the prayer, then pray it and what has preceded you, then complete it.’
Also, what was narrated about Anas رضي الله عنه that: ‘If he missed the ‘Eid prayer with the Imaam, he would gather his family and servants, then ‘Abdullah Ibn Abi ‘Utbah, his servant, would lead them in prayer of two rak’ahs which he would make the takbeer in.’
And regarding the individual who arrives at the ‘Eid prayer while the Imaam is giving the khutbah, he is to listen to the khutbah then make up the prayer after. This is so that he gets the benefit of both (listening to the khutbah and making up the prayer as opposed to making up the prayer first and missing the khutbah).”
The Permanent Committee also stated: “Whoever reaches the prayer and catches only the tashahhud with the Imaam of the two ‘Eid prayers, then he is to pray two rak’ahs after the Imaam gives the salaam and he does exactly what the Imaam does regarding the takbeer, recitation, rukoo’ and sujood.”
The Sunnah regarding the individual who prays with the Imaam is that he does not leave until hearing the khutbah.
(Mpubs.org – Legislative Rulings of Eid)
And The Day of EID is…
Hasan Al basri: ” Everyday that Allah is not disobeyed is Eid..” ( المعارف: 2/485 )